Hip-Hop is a modern sub-culture that originated in the 1970s in the inner city African American communities of New York City. DJ Afrika Bambaataa outlined the four pillars of Hip-Hop Culture: MCing, DJing, B-boying/B-girling, and graffiti writing. Other elements include beatboxing, hip hop fashion, and slang.
Since first emerging in the South Bronx, Hip-hop culture has spread around the world. When hip-hop music first began to emerge, it was based around disc jockeys who created rhythmic beats by looping breaks (small portions of songs emphasizing a percussive pattern) on two turntables, which is now more commonly referred to as sampling. This was later accompanied by "rap", identified as the rhythmic style of chanting or poetry more formally in 16 bar measures or time frames and beatboxing, a vocal technique mainly used to imitate percussive elements of the music and various technical effects of hip-hop DJ's. An original form of dancing and particular styles of dress arose among lovers of this new music. These elements experienced considerable refinement and development over the course of the history of the culture.